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Things to Consider
There are several factors that you need to take into consideration before designing your own cloud-based systems architecture, particularly if you're considering a multi-cloud/region architecture.
Before you architect your site/application and start launching servers, you should clearly understand the SLA and pricing models associated with your cloud infrastructure(s). There are different costs associated with both private and public clouds. For example, in AWS, data transferred between servers inside of the same datacenter (Availability Zone) is free, whereas communication between servers in different datacenters within the same cloud (EC2 Region) is cheaper than communication between servers in different clouds or on-premise datacenters.
Before you construct a highly customized hybrid cloud solution architecture, make sure you properly understand the actual requirements of your application, SLA, etc. Simplified architectures will always be easier to design and manage. A more complex solution should only be used if a simpler version will not suffice. For example, a system architecture that is distributed across multiple clouds (regions) introduces complexity at the architecture level and may require changes at the application level to be more latency-tolerant and/or be able to communicate with a database that's migrated to a different cloud for failover purposes.
The cloud gives you more flexibility to control the speed or latency of your site/application. For example, you could launch different instance types based on your application's needs. For example, do you need an instance type that has high memory or high CPU? From a geographic point of view which cloud will provide the lowest latency for your users? Is it necessary or cost effective to use a content distribution network (CDN) or caching service? For user-intensive applications, the extra latency that results from cross-cloud/region communication may not be acceptable.
Although it might be easier to use one of the cloud provider's tools or services, such as a load balancing or database service, it's important to realize that if and when you need to move that particular tier of your architecture to another cloud provider, you will need to modify your architecture accordingly. Since ServerTemplates are cloud-agnostic, you can use them to build portable cloud architectures.
For MultiCloud system architectures, it's important to realize that cross-cloud/region communication is performed over the public Internet and may introduce security concerns that will need to be addressed using some type of data encryption or VPN technology.
Example Reference Diagrams
Unique Design Aspects of a Server Room
When small businesses are growing and start to need computer servers and other equipment, it is not uncommon for a business to designate a specific area to place them. In most situations, this is a small, temporary, out of the way location that will really only be able to house a small amount of equipment. Keeping computer equipment operating properly is not the specific purpose of the design of these “computer closets.”
– A server room should have sensors throughout the area that measure both temperature and humidity. The environmental control systems should also be able to keep the entire room at the desired levels.
– Servers and other computer equipment generate a lot of heat. A good airflow plan helps to avoid ‘hot spots’ and eliminates heat from the area so it doesn’t cause damage.
– If a fire occurs, you don’t want to have to spray a server room with water. The water would damage all the equipment, resulting in a huge disaster. There are quite a few options for this type of system including Inergen systems, Novec systems, and FM-200 systems. These are all designed to extinguish fires while keeping computer equipment safe.
– Server rooms can end up with miles of cables. Designing the room to allow cables to properly run through the ceiling, or under the floor, helps avoid huge messes.
Redundant Power Sources – Having redundant power sources is important not only to ensure the equipment remains up and running at all times, but also to avoid power surges that could damage the servers and other items in the room.
– Server rooms house thousands, or even millions, of dollars worth of equipment. In addition, the stored data in these rooms can be invaluable. Having the necessary physical security in place to keep it safe is essential.
– Server rooms typically have multiple data circuits coming in, often from multiple different telephone companies. Having one location (the DMARK point) where the telco’s responsibility ends and passes off to the business is important.
What Equipment Goes in a Server Room?
Once a server room is physically set-up and ready to go, it is time to start installing the actual equipment. Of course, each server room is going to have different things housed within it based on the needs of the company that is setting it up. The following are among the different things you’ll find in most server rooms today
– Server racks are installed within a server room and used to house the physical equipment. These racks provide physical protection, improved temperature control, and many other benefits.
– Of course, this room is going to house servers. These could be stand-alone servers, blade servers, or even equipment for virtual servers. Housing all of them properly is crucial to ensure they run correctly.
– Routers, switches, and other networking equipment are essential for sending, receiving, and routing the data that comes in and out of the server room.
– Server rooms will often have multiple types of network cabling including CAT-5 and fiber optic cables.
– Starting from the server rack, and along the entire path that cables run, it is important to secure cables in place. Cable management equipment includes zip ties, installed eyelets, and a variety of other items to guide and protect cables.
Designing or retrofitting a room to operate as a server room is a major undertaking. When done properly, however, it will give your business a centralized location to keep a wide range of equipment safe. It also makes it easier to manage the physical computer equipment and software used to power your business.
Our Cloud sever room Design
Cabinet and Rack Terminology
The terms cabinetandrackare sometimes used interchangeably, which is incorrect.
FIGURE 3-1 Servers Mounted in a Cabinet and Rack
Cabinet and Rack Terminology
The terms cabinet and rack are sometimes used interchangeably, which is incorrect. Computer cabinets are fitted with doors and side panels, which might be removable, and are available in a very wide variety of sizes and colors. Most cabinets provide connections for electrical power. Some cabinets provide fans and baffles designed to move cooling air in a specified direction and often, at a specified rate. Others provide electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI) shielding to meet standards established by various regulatory agencies.
Cabinets enclose a rack, which is a frame that provides a means for mounting electronic equipment. Racks can also stand alone and do not require the doors, panels, and other integrated equipment that comes with cabinets. Racks come in different types. One type consists of two vertical rails, which are not enclosed by cabinet doors and panels. Another, and more common type, consists of four vertical rails, which might be enclosed by cabinet doors and panels.
You can mount the a server in a 4-post rack using the appropriate rackmounting kits. Some servers support 2-post rackmounting for telco applications. See your server installation instructions for more information. The kits are comprised of rails, slides, latches, screws and other assorted hardware. The servers are attached to mounting hardware, and the mounting hardware is secured to the rack's front and back vertical rails. FIGURE 3-1 shows Sun servers mounted in a cabinet and rack.
There are several matters to consider when planning the location of rackmounted servers in a data center. Service access to the rackmounted servers is usually from the front and cable management from the rear. For future planning, consider whether the location and space provisions for your equipment provide a reasonable amount of room for expansion.
When planning the floor space utilization of your facility, be aware that a typical cabinet occupies 12 square feet (1.115 sq. m) of floor space, which corresponds to three tiles, each tile measuring 2 x 2 feet (0.61 x 0.61 m). When room for aisles, power distribution equipment, air conditioners, and other equipment is included, floor space utilization can equal 20 square feet (1.858 sq. m), or five tiles, per cabinet.
Determining Aisle Pitch
FIGURE 3-3 Seven-Tile Aisle Pitch (not to scale)
Aisle spacing is determined when you establish the aisle pitch for the cabinet locations. Aisle pitch is the distance from the center of one cold aisle to the center of the next cold aisle either to the left or right. Data centers often use a seven-tile aisle pitch. This measurement allows two 2 x 2 foot (0.61 x 0.61 m) floor tiles in the cold aisle, 3 feet (0.9 m) in the hot aisle, and a 42-inch (1-m) allowance for the depth of the cabinet or rack. FIGURE 3-3 illustrates a seven-tile aisle pitch.
If you use floor tiles other than 2 x 2 feet (0.61 x 0.61 m), you will need to determine a different aisle pitch from this generally accepted design. For larger cabinets or cabinets with high-power servers, you might need to use an eight-tile pitch to facilitate airflow.
Temperature DifferencesMaximizing Hot-Aisle/Cold-Aisle Temperature Differences
FIGURE 3-2 Hot-Aisle/Cold-Aisle Layout
When installing servers or storage products into racks, it's very important to minimize the build-up of warm air at the front and within the rack enclosure. Optimally, you want the coldest air entering the rack enclosure and the hottest air exiting without mixing with the ambient room air. Adherence to one or more of the following guidelines will help to minimize this mixing, and effectively lowering the ambient temperature surrounding the rack, promoting a cooler operating temperature.
- Install longest "front-to-rear" depth servers and storage products at bottom locations of rack.
- Install shortest "front-to-rear" depth servers and storage products at top locations of rack.
- Install front filler panels on all vacant areas to prevent warm air inside rack from entering front air
- inlet on servers or storage products.
- Install blank panels between servers and storage products that provide "side-to-side" cooling in the same rack.
- Install side skins on all racks to prevent heat from migrating between cabinets.
- Install rack top exhaust fans to reduce heat build-up inside rack.
- Install door exhaust fans to reduce heat build-up inside rack.
Determining Aisle Clearances
To allow for installation, removal, or maintenance of a server, a clear service area must be maintained in front and in back of the cabinet or rack. At a minimum, this area should extend 3 feet (0.9 m) forward from the front of the rack (4 feet/1.2 m for for larger servers) and 3 feet on either side of the server when it is fully extended from the rack. You should also keep at least a 3-foot clearance at the rear of the cabinet or rack to allow for service and maintenance.
There are no side clearance requirements for the cabinets or racks due to the front to back airflow of the servers. If cabinets are located closely side by side, leave a minimum 1.5-feet (0.46-m) space between every five cabinets for access to the rear of the cabinets or to another aisle. If the cabinets have side panels and you believe that at some time you might need to remove them, then position the cabinets with at least 2 feet (0.6 m) of space on either side.
FGT offers EIA 310D-compliant cabinets for mounting servers. FGT's cabinets are designed and tested with some configurations of FGT equipment. Any limitations on mixing FGT's products in the cabinets are also known and documented. Your server might require a rackmount kit to enable installation into certain cabinets or racks. Contact your FGT account manager or FGT authorized sales representative for details.
The FGT's cabinet provides an industry-standard 35.4-inch (90-cm) depth and is designed to hold both servers and storage products. This flexibility can help you to better utilize floor space and to reduce administrative costs because you can mount a greater variety of products in the FGT's design than was previously possible with other cabinets.
The FGT's provides you with options for power, front door, filler panels, cables, and so forth, which enable you to configure the cabinet to fit your needs. The optional power distribution system (PDS) consists of two independently powered sequencers. Each power sequencer provides two power outlet strips, each with 24 outlets, providing 48 outlets to systems. The PDS does not use any rack units (RU) of available product space when installed in the FGT. A vertical cable management bracket, when used with the cable management arms, keeps cables organized for easy tracing and mobility.